Comparative analysis of KRAS and NRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer

Research article: Comparative analysis of KRAS and NRAS gene mutations in colorectal cancer
Author (s): B.I. Bayramov1*, Sh.A. Mammadova2, F.A. Gahramanova2, N.Y. Bayramov2
1Genetic Resources Institute of Azerbaijan National academy of Sciences, 155 Azadlig Ave., Baku
AZ1106, Azerbaijan
2 Department of Surgical Diseases, Azerbaijan Medical University, 23 A.A.Bakikhanov Str., Baku
AZ1022, Azerbaijan
*For correspondence:
Journal of Life Sciences & Biomedicine, vol. 3(76), No 1, p. 108-115 (2021)
Received: April 06, 2021; Received in revised form: May12, 2021; Accepted: June 21, 2021
Identifying the genetic profile of cancer by tumor biopsy has made progress in precision medicine. The study of the genetic profile of a tumor can help to choose the optimal treatment at the right time and identification of the cause of drug resistance. It is known that the biopsy is an invasive procedure, and it has some risks. That is why the development of non-invasive methods such as liquid biopsy is required. It is possible to determine circulating cancer cells (CTC) and circulating free tumor DNA (cfDNA) fragments with this technique. In the present study, KRAS and NRAS codon 12 and 13 mutations were compared in biopsy-derived DNA and liquid biopsy-derived cfDNA. The study included 26 patients with colorectal cancer. DNA extraction has been performed in Human Genetics Laboratory of the Genetic Resources Institute of ANAS, from biopsy material and plasma. Five (19.2%) mutations were detected in tumor DNA samples and 2 (7.7%) mutations in plasma cfDNA in the KRAS gene. Totally 3 missense mutations were detected in the NRAS gene. Two of these mutations (7.7%) were identified in tissue DNA samples and one of these (3.8%) in cfDNA. It was determined that the incidence of KRAS gene mutations in both tissue DNA and cfDNA samples was higher than NRAS gene mutations. Obtaining cfDNAs by liquid biopsy and particularly analyzing RAS gene family play a significant role in the early diagnosis, anti-EGFR therapy, selection of the right drugs, resistance, and the prognosis of the disease.
Keywords: Cancer, liquid biopsy, gene, cfDNT, exon


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